Today, I would like to address just how olive oil benefits health.
Olive oil, a liquid of gold, has been extracted from the humble olive for over 8,000 years! It is the liquid fat released from the olive fruit by pressing, and is renown for its impressive uses and health benefits. Today it is an integral part of culture and cuisine throughout Mediterranea.
In this article, we try to answer the common question of “why is olive oil healthy?”. Oftentimes we hear of superfoods and their miracles, and the truth sometimes gets stretched a little. However, not all foods are created equal, and for some, there is no denying their merit of virtue. The olive is one such example, and its oil just as much…
Olea Europaea in The Modern World
Humans have been consuming olives since the Neolithic era, and today that has only increased. The Olive is the fruit of the Olive Tree, which originated in Anatolia (modern day Turkey) and since then its cultivation has spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin, through the Middle-East, and to Europe and North Africa.
The Latin name of this evergreen tree is known as Olea Europaea, and this includes more than 1,800 individual cultivars! These include black and green olive types – both of which are used today in the production of olive oil.
Currently, the largest cultivators of the olive are Spain, Italy, and Greece, followed by multiple North African countries and others such as Turkey. The largest consumers – in order – are Greece, Spain, and Italy. When it comes to olive oil production, Spain by far leads the way at 75% of all olive oil in the World!
Italy is the second largest producer and the third largest consumer of olive oil in the world, and even then they still consume over 11l per capita annually! My previous post about Italy’s healthy meals might explain how a little!
Cultures and Cuisines
Throughout Mediterranea, olive oil historically has and still does hold key significance in tradition, medicine, health, and religion. In fact, in many languages, the words “olive” and “oil” ultimately stem from the same word due to their significance in relation!
It has been used for lamp fuel, mechanical purposes (Lampante Olive Oil – inedible), cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medicine, and cooking. It is the prior two that we will discuss here.
For its medicinal purposes, it is recommended to use Extra Virgin Olive Oil, as it contains beneficial polyphenols, and refining may reduce levels of multiple beneficial components. This kind shouldn’t be heated, but refined is still healthy and may be used for cooking.
Olive Oil and Heart Health
One of the many ways in which olive oil effectively benefits our health is through its multitude of effects on the heart.
This effect was demonstrated in a well-known study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition in which sufferers of high blood pressure consumed about 4 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil daily, replacing other kinds of fats in their diet. After half a year, their medicine dosages nearly halved. During the time, they all consumed very similar diet.
Other studies have also suggested anti-hypertensive properties of olive oil consumption. The reason for this is due to the antioxidants and monounsaturated fatty acids such as omega-9 oleic acid found in olive oil.
Antioxidants protect the arteries from damage caused by “free radicals”, which are harmful unpaired electrons that travel the bloodstream and interact with cells in the body, effectively causing damage. In the arteries, they can oxidate cholesterol (particularly LDL cholesterol), which may cause hardening and narrowing as cholesterol deposits build up (atherosclerosis). Furthermore, nitric oxide helps to dilate blood vessels, and antioxidants aid in its production. The monounsaturated fats, additionally, have a positive effect on cholesterol…
Olive oil’s antioxidants and fats (including oleic acid) have been demonstrated to reduce LDL levels the aforementioned LDL oxidation, whilst increasing HDL cholesterol levels.
This is good news for us because – as more research is showing – a high-fat diet doesn’t necessarily lead to poor health (the emphasis should be placed on not overcooking saturated fats, and getting a variety of sources of fat), and we need cholesterol the function healthy.
HDL stands for High Density Lipoprotein, and this type of cholesterol helps to remove harmful Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) accumulation, transport fat-soluble vitamins throughout the body, boost circulation through the arteries, and protect the arteries from atherosclerosis.
Furthermore, Olive Oil may strengthen arteries and blood vessel (endothelial) cell walls to boost heart health even further!
The second way we will discuss how olive oil is good for health is it’s amazing anti-inflammatory potency.
Inflammation is associated with all known illnesses, and active ingredients such as polyphenols in olive oil are potent in reducing inflammation. Well over 30 different polyphenols have been identified in Extra Virgin Olive Oil, but the one which is known most for its anti-inflammatory effects is Oleocanthal. Many studies have concluded on its positive effects on health.
Oleacanthal – Discovered by American biologist Dr. Beauchamp
This respected biologist had noticed a familiar “burning sensation” in his throat after consuming olive oil, finding it similar to that of liquid ibuprofen. He wanted to explore why this strange coincidence was. As it turns out, Oleocanthal has very similar anti-inflammatory effects to that of the NSAID drug ibuprofen, but without the same strength per amount, or the harmful side effects that NSAIDs have been known to cause.
On average, to achieve the effects of a single 200 mg tablet of ibuprofen, one should have about 3½ tablespoons of olive oil. This is data extracted from The Arthritis Foundation.
Here is a list of a few positive effects this may have on health:
Arthritis Reduction – Oleocanthal has not only been shown to reduce the pain caused by arthritis, but it lowers inflammation in the cartilage and surrounding cells, which decreases the degenerative effects of both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.
Prevents Neurological Degeneration – by reducing free radicals and plaques in the brain, Oleocanthal may significantly prevent and reduce the development of Neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
Anti-cancer Effect – Oleocanthal has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis (cell death) and inhibit cancer cell growth, whilst not having the same effects on healthy cells. This was demonstrated in one study using Oleocanthal-rich olive oil when testing cancer cells in a lab. Excitingly, similar effects were shown in rodents as well. Some of the specific types of cancers positively tested so far include colon, breast, ovarian, skin, and more.
Management of Type-2 Diabetes
When we discuss how olive oil benefits health, its potential to combat diabetes is often a surprising, yet very real, benefit.
In multiple studies, it has been shown that olive oil may reduce insulin resistance, reduce blood sugar levels, and improve blood lipid levels. After meals rich in olive oil, it has been demonstrated that blood glucose levels were lower in people that those who ate the same meal without olive oil. This is in part due to the effects of olive oil’s antioxidants and anti-inflammation.
Aids in Digestion
An important stage of digestion takes part in the stomach and intestines: where enzymes, peptides, and compounds such as gastric acid are released. When someone eats too much too quickly, especially if the foods are high in protein or fat, a lot of gastric acid will be released. In large amounts this will cause acid reflux and result in heartburn, which over time may lead to serious health complications and damage the oesophagus. Fortunately, consuming olive oil can ease the symptoms of and prevent acid reflux.
Also, by stimulating the production of peptides, foods will be more easily broken down and nutrients more easily absorbed. Nutrient absorption is also boosted in the intestines. Olive oil itself does not require much enzyme production to be digested, which potentially may ease the load of work on the pancreas too. Overall, this of course promotes a healthy digestive system.
As mentioned earlier on in this article, Italians consume a fair amount of olive oil, and as one of the world’s longest living nations, it is no surprise. Of course, the high life expectancy comes down to so much more than just olive oil consumption, including their overall diet and epigenetic factors. However, it is convincing that olive oil consumption has a part to play here. Not only does it benefit health in so many ways to prevent and reduce so many illnesses and diseases, its antioxidants might quite literally prevent ageing by protecting our cells from oxidation and free radical damage. And, if applied topically to the skin, olive oil has a multitude more benefits. It can improve skin health in ways such as supporting the fatty layers underneath the skin’s surface. One of the reasons for its benefits on skin health and immunity is its antimicrobial properties. It protects the body from invasive bacteria whilst supporting our healthy bacteria.
A Note on Olive Oil Types – What To Use and When!
In the modern market, there are multiple types of olive oil sold, and although some of them may be labelled as “Pure” or “100%”, that isn’t to say that they are what they seem. Different manufacturers and sellers may use terms that are slightly misleading. In order to ensure that when you are buying your olive oil you’re getting the kind that you intend to, always read the ingredients label fully.
Also, make sure to store olive oil properly as instructed away from light, heat, and oxygen (keep it sealed) as this will protect the precious fats and nutrients that are naturally present in the oil, and will also prevent any off flavour or aroma.
Pick oils that aren’t stored at the front in the light when you’re out shopping.
Storage and packing can significantly affect olive oil quality – the best containers are dark glass (which allow less light through), followed by stainless steel, cartons, and finally plastic PET. The darker the better.
For medicinal purposes try to use Extra Virgin Olive Oil (cold-pressed, organic).
Cold-pressed EVOO is of the highest quality, especially if organic. This type is ideal medicinally. It is available in capsules, but if you do go for this option make sure that:
- A) The olive oil really is extracted carefully, (expeller-pressed isn’t necessarily good). Look for cold-pressing and mechanical means.
- B) That the capsules themselves are made of material without negative side effects.
For light-medium cooking purposes, Extra Virgin Olive Oil also works.
(This type is less prone to oxidation), but use in cooking only if sauteing or baking, not for deep-frying.
Some people believe that extra virgin olive oil is more prone to oxidation due to the fats in it. However, whilst this might be true for other oil types, it is not of olive oil. It contains primarily monounsaturated fatty acids, which are much less prone to oxidation than polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like those found in canola, sunflower, soy, and vegetable oils.
Additionally, it is rich in antioxidants which protect even the monounsaturated fats. Cooking with EVOO therefore creates a negligible amount of trans fats.
Unless you are deep-frying, or reusing the oil a lot, extra virgin works well.
Note: You will be destroying some of the beneficial phytonutrients by cooking, but that is to be expected.
The next best thing for very high-heat cooking would be Pure Olive Oil.
… Which is a mixture or Virgin and Refined (such as Light) Olive Oils. This is due to its higher smoking point, but it is not as healthy as the virgin olive oils and the Refined Olive Oil lacks in anti-inflammatory properties, antioxidants, and nutrition when compared.
Most of the time, it is best to avoid refined olive oil, as it may contain chemicals and lacks flavour and health benefits.
Overall it is very clear to see why olive oil is touted as a superfood, since it really is. For thousands of years, its medicinal properties and health benefits have been well-known by those who consume it, and as such it has become an integral part of many cultures particularly across the Mediterranean Basin. I hope you have learnt from this post about the benefits of olive oil and why everyone should consider including it as part of their (daily) diet.
I personally love olive oil, and have it almost every day! Let me know about your thoughts on olive oil and how you use it in your cooking… or cosmetics. 🙂
If you have any comments, suggestions, or questions I’d love to hear them in the comments below!
Until the next one, stay healthy